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Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture, and operation of robot s. This field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics, nanotechnology, and bioengineering.

Robot is a machine that gathers information about its environment and uses that information to follow instructions to do work.

Robots are now widely used in factories to perform high-precision jobs such as welding and riveting. They are also used in special situations that would be dangerous for humans for example, in cleaning toxic wastes or defusing bombs.

It is well known that the kinematics and dynamics of robots are highly nonlinear with large couplings and uncertainties in model for example, when a robot picks up several tools of different dimensions, unknown orientations or gripping points, the overall dynamics of robot changes and is therefore difficult to derive exactly so robot control becomes an important challenge.

Robotic technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition. Many of today’s robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics.

Today’s robots developed and play an important role in the people’s life because any person would like to spend his/ her entire life time as an individual without becoming a dependent person so human-robot interaction become important. Now many scientist work in this area and many different interfaces have been proposed for human-robot interaction

Robots must obey three rules that are:

  • Robots must never harm human beings.
  • Robots must follow instructions from humans without violating rule 1.
  • Robots must protect themselves without violating the other rules.

The type of robots that you will encounter most frequently are robots that do work that is too dangerous, boring, onerous, or just plain nasty. Most of the robots in the world are of this type. They can be found in auto, medical, manufacturing and space industries. In fact, there are over a million of these type of robots working for us today such as:

  • Industrial robot
  • Parallel robot
  • Cable robot
  • Flexible joint robot
  • Flexible link robot
  • Mobile robot
  • Humanoid robot
  • Surgical robot
  • Underwater robot
  • Aerospace robot
  • Swarm robot
  • Rehabilitation robot
  • Assistant robot
  • Rescue robot
  • Firefighting robot

A robot has these essential characteristics:

Sensing First of all your robot would have to be able to sense its surroundings. It would do this in ways that are not similar to the way that you sense your surroundings. Giving your robot sensors: light sensors (eyes), touch and pressure sensors (hands), chemical sensors (nose), hearing and sonar sensors (ears), and taste sensors (tongue) will give your robot awareness of its environment.

Movement A robot needs to be able to move around its environment. Whether rolling on wheels, walking on legs or propelling by thrusters a robot needs to be able to move. To count as a robot either the whole robot moves, like the Sojourner or just parts of the robot moves, like the Canada Arm.

Energy A robot needs to be able to power itself. A robot might be solar powered, electrically powered, battery powered. The way your robot gets its energy will depend on what your robot needs to do.

Intelligence A robot needs some kind of “smarts.” This is where programming enters the pictures. A programmer is the person who gives the robot its ‘smarts.’ The robot will have to have some way to receive the program so that it knows what it is to do.

At the end artificial intelligence in robotics means that robots can make decisions based on numerous factors.